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    direct & indirect speech

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    مستر ابو يوسف

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 06/09/2010

    direct & indirect speech

    مُساهمة من طرف مستر ابو يوسف في الإثنين ديسمبر 13, 2010 5:01 am

    Unit 8 reported speech
    1- statement الجملة الخبرية

    وهى الجملة التى تبدأ بفاعل :
    He said "I will leave now "
    تحول
    Say………………… say
    Says ……………….says
    Say to …………….. tell
    Says to …………….. tells
    Said …………………. Said
    Said to ……………… told
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    نحذف القوسين ونربط بـ that ( ويمكن عدم استخدامها )
    He says " I will leave now "
    He says that he will leave now
    He says he will leave now
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    لو كان فعل القول ماضى ( said ) نتبع التحويلات الاتية :
    مضارع بسيط …………. ماضى بسيط
    He goes out ………….he went out
    They play tennis………….they played tennis
    Am / is / are …………. was / were
    He is late …………. He was late

    ماضى بسيط …………. ماضى تام / ماضى بسيط كما هو
    He saw …………. He had seen / he saw
    He was ill …………. He had been ill
    He was ill

    He said " I saw my keys on the table "
    He said that he saw his keys on the table
    He said that he had seen his keys on the table
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    مضارع تام …………. ماضى تام
    Have / has …………. Had
    He has seen me…………. He had seen me
    They have left ………….the had left
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- مضارع تام مستمر …………. ماضى تام مستمر
    He said " I have been working for 3 days "
    He said that he had been working for 3 days
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    ماضى مستمر …………. ماضى مستمر / ماضى تام مستمر
    He said " we were sleeping "
    He said that they were sleeping
    He said that they had been sleeping
    ولكن لاحظ بعد while لا ياتى ماضى تام مستمر
    He said " while I was walking , I found a pen "
    He said that while he was walking , he found a pen
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Don't / doesn't + مصدر …………. Didn't + مصدر
    She said to me " I don't sleep early "
    She told me that she didn't sleep early

    Didn't + مصدر ............................ hadn't + مصدر
    She said to Mina " I didn't see you "
    She told Mina that she hadn't seen him
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ادرس التحويلات الاتية جيدا
    will ……………….. would
    shall……………….. will
    can ……………….. could
    may……………….. might
    must ……………… must / had to
    must be ………….. must have been
    now………………..then
    come ……………… go
    this………………..that
    these………………..those
    here………………..there
    today………………..that day
    tonight ……………….. that night'
    tomorrow………………..the next day / the day after
    next ( week / year ….) …………the following (week) / the (week) after
    last ( week / year ….) ………….the ( week ) before
    ( a month ) ago……………….. ( a month ) before
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    لو كان فعل القول مضارع او مضارع تام او مستقبل : say- says- has said – will say
    لا تغير الزمن داخل الاقواس بل الضمائر فقط
    The child says to me " I can tidy my room by myself "
    The child tells me that he can tidy his room by himself "
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    They say " Youssef , we are late "
    They tell Youssef that they are late .
    he said " I shall go abroad "
    he said that he would go abroad
    لاحظ تحول I حسب القائل :
    Youssef said " I will come on time "
    Youssef said that He would go on time "

    وكذلك الضمائر المرتبطة بها :
    He said " they took my book "
    He said that they took his book .

    He said " the teacher punished me "
    He said that the teacher had punished him .
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    لاحظ ان they - he – she – it لو وجدت داخل الاقواس لا تتغير :
    he said " she passed the test "
    he said that she had passed the test
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    تحول we الى they ويمكن ان تترك كما هى حسب المعنى :
    The teacher said " we must care for passive students "
    The teacher said that they must care for passive students "

    Hany said to me " we must study harder "
    Hany told me that we must study harder
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    تحول you حسب المخاطب :
    she said to Ali " you are late "
    she told Ali that he was late

    he said to Soha " you left early "
    he told Soha that she left early

    he said to Soha and Mona " you are late "
    he told Soha and Mona that they were late
    ان لم يوجد مخاطب فالمخاطب انا :
    He said " you are lucky "
    He said that I was lucky
    He said " I will get you some tea "
    He said that he would get me some tea
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    لاحظ ان المخاظب قد يكون داخل الجملة وعندئذ يخرج خارج الاقواس :
    He said " the teacher is coming , Hamed" يا حامد
    he told Hamed that the teacher was coming

    she said " Ali , the lesson is very difficult "
    she told Ali that the lesson was very difficult
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    لاحظ الكلمات الاتية لا تتغير عند التحويل :
    would – could – must -should – might – used to
    he said " I would study hard"
    he said that he would study hard

    she said " I used to ride a bike"
    she said that she used to ride a bike

    لو وجدت must بمعنى يجب ان ( ضرورة ) تحول الى had to او تبقى كما هى
    He said to me " you must study hard "
    He told me that I had to / must study hard

    لو وجدت must be ( باين عليه يكون كذا ) ..... استنتاج ... تحول الى must have been
    He said " they must be in a hurry "
    He said that they must have been in a hurry
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    الفعل بعد wish لا يتغير
    He said " I wish I went out "
    He said that he wished he went out
    لاحظ ان wish نفسها تغيرت حسب الزمن
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    متى لا نغير الازمنة داخل الاقواس ؟؟؟؟
    1- اذا كان فعل القول مضارع او مستقبل كما ذكرنا :
    He says " I'm drinking tea now "
    He says that he is drinking tea now


    2-الحقائق العلمية لا تتغير عند التحويل :
    The teacher said " The earth is round "
    The teacher said that the earth is round

    3- لو كان فعل القول : said now
    said just now
    said a moment ago
    said a minute ago
    لا نغير الزمن داخل الاقواس
    He said just now " Soha cooks food well "
    He said just now that Soha cooks food well

    She said now " I'm studying my lessons , father"
    She told her father now that she is studying her lessons

    Choose "
    He said a moment ago that he ( left – leaving – had left ) his keys at home.
    4- فى حالة if الثانية والثالثة لا تتغير الازمنة بل الضمائر فقط
    She said "if I were rich , I'd buy a car "
    She said that if she were rich , she would buy a car .

    Fakhry said " if I had come earlier , I'd have understood the lesson "
    Fakhry said that if he had come earlier , he'd have understood the lesson
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    عند وجود جملتين نربط بـ and that
    Ebrahim said " I'm hungry " " I will buy some food "
    Ebrahim said that he was hungry and that he would buy some food
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    1- she said that their train ( left – had left – would leave ) the next day
    2- he said he ( has left – had left – will leave ) early the day before
    3- he says that he ( has left – had left – would leave ) early .
    امثلة من الملخصات اختر وصحح
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2- Question السؤال
    وهى الجملة التى تبدأ بين القوسين باستفهام او اداة استفهام :
    He said " Are you late ?"
    He said " Why are you late ?"
    -----------------------------------
    تحول :
    Say……………… ask
    Says ……………….asks
    Say to Ali ……… …ask Ali
    Says to Mona …… asks Mona
    Said …………………. asked
    Said to Soha……………asked Soha

    لو بدأت الجملة بـ am – is – are was – were – has - have – had – will – would
    can – could ………………
    نحذف الاقواس ونربط بـ if او whether
    She said " will the man buy the car ?"
    She asked if …….
    She asked whether …….
    لو بدأت الجملة بأداة استفهام نستخدم نفس الاداة كرابط
    She said to me " Why will they leave ?"
    She asked me why …………..

    بعد if او whether ياتى فاعل ثم فعل محول اذا كان فعل القول فى الماضى

    If / wheather + فاعل + فعل محول
    She asked if the man would buy the car
    She asked me Why they would leave.

    She said " why are you late ?"
    She asked why I was late .
    لو كان فعل القول مضارع او مستقبل لا يكون الفعل محول
    He says " does he sleep early ?"
    He asked if he sleeps early
    He says to me " are you happy "
    ………………………………………………………………………………………..
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    لو بدأت جملة الاستفهام بـ do - does - did
    1- لو بدأت الجملة بـ do - does تحذف وناتى بالتصؤيف الثانى للفعل
    He said " do they eat rice ?"
    He asked if they ate rice ]

    They said to me " Does she drive a car ?"
    They asked me if she drove a car .

    He said " does Soha play the piano ?"
    ………………………………………………………………………
    He says to me " do the teacher love their students ?"
    ………………………………………………………………………
    2- لو بدأت الجملة بـ Did تحذف ونستخدم had + pp
    He said " did they see the match ?"
    He asked if they had seen the match .
    They said to me " Did you drink the tea ?"
    ………………………………………………………………………
    يمكن الا نستخدم had + pp بل التصريف الثانى (حيث ان الماضى البسيط يمكن ان يبقى كما هو دون تحويل)
    He said " did the player score a goal ?"
    He asked if the player scored a goal ?"
    Choose
    He asked if the girls ( eats – will eat – have eaten – had eaten ) the apples
    He asked if the girls ( eats – will eat – ate – have eaten ) the apples

    He asked me just now if the man ( had left – have left – left - leaves ) early two days before
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    He said " where do they live ?"
    He asked where they lived

    She said to Samy " why does the pupil cry today ?"
    She asked Samy why the pupil cried that day .

    He said "Why did they leave early ?"
    He asked why they had left / left early
    He said " how much money have you spent?"
    He asked how much money I had spent
    لاحظ استخدمنا how much money كلها كرابط
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    يمكن استخدام wonder / inquire / want to know بدلا من asked
    ولكن لاحظ انه لا ياتى بعدهم مخاطب
    اhe said to Sameer " where do you live ?"
    He wanted to know where Sameer lived

    She said to Hala " why are you in a hurry ?"
    She wondered why Hala was in a hurry

    Correct
    She wondered Kamal why he was sad

    ملحوظة هامة : بعد اداة الاستفهام فى الجمل المحولة الى غير مباشر ياتى فاعل ثم فعل محول
    Choose :
    1- he asked why ………………. the car
    a- did the clean b- does the clean c- they clean d- they cleaned
    2- they asked why ………………angry
    a- are the pupils b- the pupils are c- the pupils were d- were the pupils
    3- she asked me if the earth ……………. The sun
    a- orbits b- orbited c- has orbited d- had orbited
    she asked me just now

    لو كان فعل القول مضارع او به just now – amoment ago لا نحول الافعال التى داخل الاقواس

    He said just now " where does she live ?"
    He asked where she lives

    They said to Huda a moment ago " where are you saying ?"
    They asked Huda a moment ago where she is staying
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    He said to me " how many apples will you buy?"
    ……………………………………………………………………………………..…
    He says " how old are you ?"
    ………………………………………………………………………………………..
    he said now " where were they "
    …………………………………………………………………………………….…

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ادرس ما يللى جيدا :
    He said " Shall I bring you some tea "
    He offered me some tea
    He offered to get me some tea

    He said " shall we meet at the airport ?"
    He suggested meeting at the airport

    He said " why don't we go for a walk ?"
    He suggested going for a walk

    She said " can you help me ?"
    She asked me to help her
    She asked me for help

    He said " How about having tea with me ?"
    He invited me to have tea with him

    He said " I didn't take the money "
    He denied taking the money

    He said " I'll finish in time "
    He promised to finish in time

    He said to Soha " I'm sorry , I have broken your pen "
    He apologized to Soha for breaking her pen

    He said " you should study hard "
    He advised me to study hard

    He said " Don't forget to bring your camera "
    He reminded me to bring my camera

    He said " No, I won't leave now "
    He refused to leave then

    He said " Yes, I will study my lessons"
    He agreed to study his lessons

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    2- order and request الامر والطلب
    وهى الجملة التى تبدأ بفعل امر ( مصدر)
    He said to me " open the door , please "
    Said / said to ………….. told / asked
    تحذف الاقواس ونربط بـ to
    He told me to open the door
    لا حظ لابد من وجود مخاطب فى الجملة الامرية
    وان لم يوجد مخاطب فالمخاطب انا
    He said " open the door , please "
    He asked me to open the door
    يمكن استخدام بعض الكلمات بدلا من asked / told
    مثل : advised / ordered / begged / warned
    He ordered me to open the door
    لو كان الامر منفى بـ Don't نربط بـ not to
    He said " Don't speak loudly "
    He told / warned me not to speak loudly
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    3- Exclamation التعجب
    وهى الجملة التى تبدأ بـ
    what a /an + صفة + اسم !
    he said " what a beautiful flower !"
    he exclaimed that the flower was beautiful

    he said " what a clever boy !"
    ………………………………………………………………..

    He says " what a kind- hearted man !"
    ………………………………………………………………..

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Advanced Exercises
    Correct
    1. He said " you will visit us the day after "
    2. he wanted to know if I have got a mobile
    3. the teacher said if I will study hard
    4. he said " I was going to Cairo tomorrow "
    5. he suggested play tennis in the afternoon
    6. he assured that he has sent all the letters
    7. he wondered Samy if he could swim alone
    8. my brother asked me if I have finished my work yet
    9. he promised that he won't make such mistakes again
    10. he asked that he could use my mobile
    11. I asked him what was he doing
    12. please let me know when are you leaving
    13. he said that she would buy a car the month before
    14. I wonder how much does your car cost
    15. could you tell me how do you cook this food
    16. he complains that his wife made a lot of mistakes
    17. he told that he would travel abroad
    Choose
    1- she ………… that she would be home the next morning
    a) told b) promised c) asked d) inquired
    2- he said he ………… be able to sleep until he had finished his work
    a) wouldn't - b) won't - c) didn't - d)hasn't been
    3- I will aske him …………. He agrees
    a) If b) unless c) that d )what
    4- He asked me ………
    a-Where had I been
    b-Where I have been
    c-Where I had been
    d-Where have I been

    5- she said they …….. her there the following week
    a) are meeting b) had met c) will meet d)- were meeting
    6- I asked Leila ……….to study at the university
    a- What she is doing
    b- What is she doing
    c- What was she doing
    d- What she was doing

    7- The assistant asked me …………….
    a- Where were the changing rooms
    b- Where the changing rooms were
    c- If the changing rooms were
    d- Where the changing rooms are

    8- he said she ………….. ill the that day
    a- must be
    b- had to be
    c- must had been
    d- must have been

    9- he said she ……….. just left
    a- has
    b- had
    c- was
    d- is


      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الأحد نوفمبر 19, 2017 11:06 am